World Wildlife Day -Listen to the Young Voices Part 3

In my last post I covered a few ideas for nature-based activities for ‘absorbent minds’ ie. Children in the 3-6 age group. Most of the activities for that age are sensorial, to help the child discover their own senses and to absorb their environment.

When they approach age 7, Montessori noted the child is entering the sensitive period for social learning. They want time to build relationships with their friends. They also become little judges – becoming more attuned to the laws and contrasts of their world. No longer content with the short answers, they start to want to get a sense of how things work. They love engineering and science experiments. It’s also hard to keep them from tools and equipment.

With an emerging understanding of time-lapse the children of this age group start to form longer term memory and foresight. They can start to understand more deeply the cycles of weather, seasons and comparing past to present.

In short, the children start broadening their view.

This article aims to help in understanding the role of nature for children age 6-9 and some ideas on implementing Montessori activities for this age.

An exerpt from To Educate the Human Potential Chapter 1 “The Six-Year-Old Confronted with the Cosmic Plan”, Montessori 1948:

Knowledge can best be given where there is eagerness to learn, so this is the period when the seed of everything can be sown, the child’s mind being like a fertile field, ready to receive what will germinate into culture.

Montessori goes on to explain that:

If the universe is presented in the right way, it will do more for him than just arouse his interest, for it will create in him admiration and wonder, a feeling loftier than any interest and more satisfying. The child’s mind then will no longer wander, but becomes fixed and can work.

So the 6-9 age is a great time to start delving into nature study. Learning can take many forms. Let’s explore how nature can be the vehicle to learn many facets of our world.


Although I didn’t join Scouts or Guides, I can see why Maria Montessori was a great supporter of the scout movement as a way to gain moral, social and practical skills. She said that the “commitment of the individual to the group (is) what is essential”. Montessori, 1976.

Scouts were formed around the same time as Montessori developed her method. At the time she was working in poverty stricken areas in Rome. She may have been attracted to Scouts for the following reasons:

  • They issue a uniform not to be militaristic, but so as to blur the line between the rich and poor.
  • The society emphasises moral aims
  • The children choose whether or not to join but when they do they commit with a pledge. They learn to be committed to a cause and are encouraged to help others.
  • Handicapped members are integrated within the group.
  • They are given a wide variety of opportunities designed to challenge themselves an build resilience and independence.
  • They study nature and the environment and seek to protect it

These ideas were explored in a lecture Dr. Maria Montessori and Lord Robert Baden- Powell of Gilwell, two pedagogues. Margarete Wonesche

Indeed Montessori thought Scouts so important, she even integrated many of their principles into her curriculum, after initially implementing them with fifty children in her classroom in Holland. (The Scouter, 1939).

The child likes to realise, as Montessori said, “that it can go through life, carrying on it’s back all it may need.”

Scouts is open for members age 6 to 25.


To keep a garden can provide many learning opportunities for this age group. The children can now be more involved in the planning process. They can learn about the benefits of different plants and what they need. They can draw a plan. They can work out a budget and help to shop for materials.

In helping the child to own the project, consider how Montessori provides self-check activities, presented by three period lessons.

For example:

  • Show the child how to map the garden with grid paper. Explain that 1 square equals 1 step. Show them to measure by walking, then mark the page where the boundaries are. Then they can walk to mark where objects are eg. Path, house, tree. They can self check by checking the distance to an object from the other boundary. They can see then whether everything spaced on the page as in proportion.

As a garden is an involved, ongoing project I can not suggest how to teach it all here. All I can say is stay tuned, as we often do gardening projects and I intend to document them.

I will say this, though. A child of 6 plus wants to build friendships. My daughter of 5.5 already places great importance on time with her friends! Gardening together is a great way for them to learn team work and get to know new people. Therefore, bring others around to share your plot or join a community garden.

Trail/Bush Walking

As a young girl I remember many bush walks with my family. We would occasionally visit a rainforest or the bush or camp somewhere usually as an outing with a local nature group. I remember the adults would share vast amounts of information along the way. They’d notice things most people wouldn’t see; animal droppings, holes, wildflowers and igneous rock formations. We were sometimes accompanied by a local who explained a lot also, as everyone was interested in the geography and climate of the area. Many of the members were species specialists in their own right, ready to provide the scientific names and notable characteristics of any plants or animals along the way. I admired the enthusiasm of these naturalists. This rubbed off on me, as it opened my eyes to the wildness of nature, it’s relationships, it’s careful balance and it’s stark difference to the machine world known to humans.
If you don’t have any wilderness within reach at least visit a large local park or garden regularly. Buy guide books and binoculars so you can build your knowledge along the way.

A tripod helps to steady binoculars to focus. DD is bird watching from the kitchen window.

Nature Journalling

Nature journalling goes hand in hand with nature study. This is also an in-depth topic that requires its own article. As a beginner, here are some wonderful free resources to start:

Californian Native Plant Society Free Curriculum

Handbook of Nature Study by Anna Botsford Comstock, 1911

Nature Study in Schools:Conducted by CJ Maynard, 1899

Depending on your location, you may be able to find guides for a trail or species of birds or plants in your local area. You may also invest in a set of binoculars or monocular with tripod for bird watching.

Drawing supplies can be simple as a pencil and paper on a clip board, progressing with experience to watercolours, coloured pencils and pens. Clothing should be comfortable, lightweight and camouflaged.

The Charlotte Mason method is an educational approach that you should also look into for a guide on nature study. Many homeschoolers who are following Miss Mason’s approach have developed resources, and Charlotte Mason’s own writings are insightful on the topic, available on public domain.

One thing Charlotte Mason’s method incorporates is literature in developing general knowledge and inspiring interest to learn. Put relevant books on display at all times. Consider:

  • Is the book well-written. Does it use a variety of language, proper terms and flows naturally?
  • Are the illustrations beautiful, realistic and inspiring (forget the cartoony or CGI types)?
  • Does the story have a moral lesson?
  • Is the information correct?
  • Is it written by an acclaimed author (not necessary, but a good indication of the quality)
  • Is there a story line? Fact books and textbooks have their place, but at this age the child is drawn to fantasy and adventure.

Some examples of nature story books to inspire young readers :

Butterfly Park, Fall leaves, Shadow Chasers, If You Hold a Seed – by Elly Mackay

Lotus and Feather – Ji-li Jiang and Julie Downing

What Forest Knows – George Ella Lyon and August Hall

Moonshadow – Gillian Lobel and Karin Littlewood

Moon Forest – Patricia MacCarthy

Make Way for Ducklings – Robert McCloskey

Little Swan – Jonathon London and Kristina Rodanas

House Held Up By Trees – Ted Kooser and Jon Klassen

Weeds Find a Way – Cindy Jenson-Elliott and Carolyn Fisher

What Will I Be? – Nicola Davies and Marc Boutavant

Stories from Bug Garden – Lisa Moser and Gwen Millward

Picture a Tree – Barbara Reid

Leaf Man – Lois Elhert

The Secret Garden – Francis Hodgson Burnett

If I Never Forever Endeavor – Holly Meade

My Mother Talks to Trees – Doris Gove and Marilynn H. Mallory

Biology, Botany and Chemistry

Montessori noted that children of this early elementary age are interested in building their vernacular and studying the small details of their environment. They are particularly drawn to sketching them (excuse the pun). One day she brought some flowers and dissecting instruments to class to see whether the young students might show an interest in flower dissection:

My suspicion proved correct. The children with the keenest interest dissected a section of the violet with remarkable accuracy, and they quickly learned to use all the unstruments.  But my greatest surprise was to find that they did not despise or throw away the dissected parts, as we older students used to do.  With great care they placed them all in attractive order on a piece of white paper, as if they had in mind some secret purpose.  Then with great joy they began to draw them; and they were accurate, skilled, tireless, and patient, as they are in everything else.  They began to mix and dilute their colours to obtain the correct shades.  They worded up to the last minute of the school session, finishing off their designs in watercolour: the stem and leaves green, the individual petals violet, the stamens – all in a row – yellow, and the dissected pistil light green.  The following day a little girl brought me a charmingly vivacious written composition, in which she told of her enthusiasm over the new work, describing even the less noticeable details of the little violet.

These two expressions – drawing and composition – were the spontaneous manifestations of their happy entrance into the realms of science.

Encouraged by this great success, I took some simple microscopes to school.  The children began to observe the pollen and even some of the membrane coverings of the flower.  By themselves they made some splendid cross-sections of the stems, which they studied most attentively.

They “drew everything they saw”.  Drawing seemed to be the natural complement of their observation work. (Montessori, 1917, pp.313-315)

Much of the indoors learning can be carried out through observation and experiment, given that the materials and experiments have been set up mindfully.  I suggest you read the Montessori Commons guide before embarking on experiments.

Other Classroom/Home Materials

Make way for Nomenclature cards – this is something like an alternative to textbooks and worksheets in traditional classroom. The difference?  The children are engaged in the material as if it were a game.  On the 3-6 shelves they had three part cards, and now, the little explorers of elementary level can be given descriptions to accompany the pictures and names (essentially making them four-part cards). They are challenged to match the description of each card to it’s picture. This develops their reading, language, memory and powers of deduction as well as giving them a greater understanding. They are a beautiful work that play a huge role in encouraging independent learning. The children independently access nomenclature in a way that they can repeat until they have assimilated the information.

You might already be familiar with the basics of three part cards. If you’re looking for alternative activities for using three part cards, see this video:

Here’s a video of how I present our nomenclature cards neatly in folders: Card folders

Making the Cards

A google search can bring you to a range of ready-to-print three part cards. Eg. Montessori Print Shop or ABC Teach. This is normally where I start, as the line drawings are simple and easy for the child. It’s harder to find 4 part or nomenclature cards so you can do as I do and make your own descriptions.

When making nomenclature cards, you can start with a template to ensure they print out at the same size and font each time. Be mindful of the font. Larger font is easier to read, and at this age they are starting to learn cursive writing. You might like a font that will expose the children to cursive reading. Keep two sets – a control set, with the pictures, labels and descriptions together (can be printed smaller size to save space and paper) The second is the working set. The pictures, labels and descriptions are separated for the child to match. If the child enjoys writing, you might like to have a third set of pictures so they can make a booklet. This would come after the child has mastered the card games.

For home use with age 6 plus, you may not wish to laminate any longer. The rate at which they are learning is so fast that you are better dedicating your time to making many sets of cards and setting up experiments. If they get a little dog-eared then great, they have been well used. Perhaps time to make a booklet.


Any new work should begin with real or living things. If the child brings a flower, you can present the parts of a flower nomenclature cards in a three period lesson. It can help to also have the relative botany or zoology puzzles and their activities. Check out this beautiful Shoots and Sprouts set up at Montessori By Mom.

Set up your Sensorial Work, the Leaf cabinet, and Progressive Exercises relating to botany. The Progressive Exercises can utilise items from the child’s home or your outdoor adventures such as flowers, stones etc. One thing I have for DD is a discovery box.  It’s a transparent light box from IKEA, in which I display things to study – for example pine cones, stones, gems, leaves, dried flowers or shells.  We have a magnifying glass to view things closer. This is a way to engage interest in nature even when we are not outside.

Smelling bottles should also contain smells from around the home. My daughter, DD loves essential oils and can differentiate between many scents after using the smelling bottles. I do a lot of Indian cooking also, and occasionally let DD test her olfactory with our spices.

Indian_Spices (1)

Identifying kitchen spices my smell or taste can be a progressive exercise relating to botany

Finally, I will share with you some of my most treasured childhood memories as they come to mind…..walking through a rain forest barefoot after dark with my father and brother and treading on a stinging nettle with no option but to walk the rest of the way…..spotting possums and bats and spiders on a night-spotting walk…..seeing Haley’s comet through a telescope……collecting cicada shells to wear as jewelry…….finding a koala on the backyard fence……climbing a mountain…….following soldier crabs on the march…….planting trees with my father…….playing in coloured leaves……smelling jasmine and violets…..burying my face in roses the size of my head…….having a sea anemone hold my hand……the sound of frogs when it rains.




World Wildlife Day – Listen to the young voices Part two

With this year’s theme ‘Listen to the Young Voices’ the UN acknowledges the influence young people have on the future of our planet.

What we can do as parents and educators is encourage children to engage with and learn about our natural and wild environment, forming a lifelong bond with our world’s life source.

Today I’ll share with you how to initiate nature encounters for young children age 3-6. Maria Montessori recognised this as a general age for the development of the senses:

Whereas the child used to absorb by gazing at the world while people carried him about, now he shows an irresistible tendency to touch everything … He is continuously busy, happy, always doing something with his hands.” (Montessori, p. 168) The hands, Montessori says, become a “prehensile organ of the mind.” (Montessori, p. 168)

But not only do they want to be busy, they want to develop their independence.

It is as though he were saying: ‘I want to do everything myself. Now, please don’t help me.’(Montessori, p. 170)

These are two main ideas that are prevalent in Montessori’s writings to keep in mind when providing activities for child under 6.

So it hardly needs mentioning that natural textures are a joy for the young ones to explore. Try…



Gardening introduces children to nature in a fun, interactive way. They learn what is needed to make things grow and watch the process day by day.

If you have a garden at home then you have a great place to start. Your child can be involved in many things with your instruction, and with the right sized tools. Or, look around your town to find a community garden you can join. Consider how you might give a lesson to your child on the following:

As you can see the list goes on and on of what a young child can do in the garden. As community and home gardeners my daughter and I have done all of the above together. It has been an enriching experience for the both of us.

Beach Combing


A love heart ‘cake’ DD and I molded from dry sand

If you spend any time at the beach you’ll see your child looking up and down the shoreline at everything washed up. Let them explore and take it one step further and make something. Sandcastle, a cake, a treasure box for the ocean. Use your imagination to make the experience alive. Focus on textures too. Say ‘look, this shell is different to that one. Can you feel this one is rough? This one is smooth.” And so on.

Sometimes DD and I also play the wave sound game. We stand at the water’s edge with our backs to the ocean. When we hear the waves crash we know the water will touch us soon so that’s the cue to run up the sand before it can get to us. Then we creep back down as we hear the water retreat.

Nature Treasure Hunting

Take a walk to the park and look together for anything interesting that you see in a group. Eg. lots of pine cones dropped from the trees, leaves, sticks, seed pods, flowers, stones etc.

Think of a way for your child to sort the material. Do they vary in colour, shape, size, texture. Once sorted, the items can be used to make eco art. Be sure to leave your beautiful treasures behind for the birds to enjoy!


DD and I sort coloured leaves to make a spiral.


Eco art face from collected items

Care for a Chrysalis

We were fortunate enough to experience the emerging of a butterfly from a chrysalis that was given to us by a local butterfly expert. It was handed to us when we were volunteer gardening in our local butterfly park.  I normally wouldn’t want to take an animal from its habitat but we were told the caterpillars were being attacked by a pest on the vine and we were helping the breeding program. Luckily, it survived and we could let it free outside. This is a show your child won’t forget. Get to know your local naturalists to find out more.

Weaving, Printing and Other Crafts

There are a number of things you can do with found items in combination with craft materials. Try:

  • Using a forked branch as a weaving loom with coloured yarn. Have the child weave in and out, around the 2 stems then use it as a frame for other objects.
  • Make a boat using seed pods, twigs and leaves to float down a creek.
  • Paint different types of leaves and print them onto paper.
  • Make a leaf rubbing by placing paper on a leaf and rubbing the paper with a crayon until the impression appears
  • Collect flowers and press them in a heavy book then use them to make cards
  • Soak scented flowers to make perfumed water for a spray. DD tried this once with frangipanni’s and requests often to do it again.
  • Make a pet rock: if you find a small, smooth rock a child might like to paint it with a face. Add googly eyes for extra cuteness.
  • If you come across flexible twigs weave them with leaves to make a crown.
  • Stitch a daisy chain or cloverchain

Combining craft materials with found items

Free Play

It’s important to note the value of free play in nature. If you can regularly spend time outdoors with your children and their friends they will discover so much that planned activities won’t allow for. Plan for extended free play by bringing anything you need with you – sun protection, picnic mat, drinking water, a towel, spare clothing, food, insect repellent…anything you can to make the day comfortable for everyone. Last thing you want is complaints shortly after you arrive.
If your child comes to you and complains of boredom be prepared to direct their focus towards cloud watching, or to count how many birds you hear or to play pretend or to move to another location even. Imagination is infectious!

Sensory Garden

Children love a sensory garden. Find out if you have one in your local botanic gardens to visit, or better still, grow your own. There are many different herbs and succulents that are lovely to touch, smell and sometimes taste. Some examples:

  • Lamb’s ears Stachys byzantina
  • Sage
  • Thyme
  • Choc peppermint
  • Blue chalk (succulent)
  • Mint
  • Basil
  • Jasmine
  • Cotton
  • Jade plant (succulent)
  • Sensitive plant Mimosa pudica
  • Stevia
  • Geranium
  • Indian Borage

Have Fun

There are too many ideas to mention on this blog for getting children of 3-6 enjoying nature. Most importantly, make the opportunity by first being there. Your park, trails, beach, garden, wherever is easy to regularly venture out; take the time to enjoy it with your child and see the many benefits to their health and well-being.



World Wildlife Day: Listen to the Young Voices part one

World Wildlife Day is fast approaching on March 3rd, and the theme this year, Listen to the Young Voices brings me a great blog topic – children and nature study.

My daughter is five and a half. We watched the 1992 film Fern Gully: The Last Rainforest on the weekend and, as I expected, it sparked more excitement to pretend we were fairies rather than how to save wilderness. While we were flying around the living room afterwards she did surprise me in saying that “if the big machine comes to take the trees we can show the driver a picture of what the place will look like with and without the trees. Then he can choose.” Ah, there’s the spark.

More realistically, though, we can’t expect a child of five to understand the complexities of ecosystems or how we, as humans, interact with wilderness to preserve it. They are still preoccupied with gaining a sense of how the world looks, how it feels, smells, tastes and sounds. Montessori sensorial activities were designed for this age to provide safe exploration of his senses independently of the adult.

We can not create observers by saying, “observe,” but by giving them the power and the means for this observation, and these means are procured through education of the senses. – Montessori 1912, p.229

I’ve seen this first hand in our set up home environment, where I observed DD focus on the textures she feels, or where she would listen to a whole song and ask for it many times again, kneading dough, commenting on the smells around etc. Naturally the sensory cravings are equally present on our trips outdoors – to the park, beach, a gardening session here and there. 

We usually go with friends close in age and I observe that they do mostly enjoy collecting and sorting items, using their treasures as toys. They like to feel the sand and dirt, crunch dry bark, have stick fights and climb on rocks. They also still stay close to the parents and are sometimes afraid of what they encounter. When I pulled DD up from a small ditch last week she called ‘Mum, you nearly let me die!’ A little dramatic, but for them it’s all so real.

The same day we were taking our friend’s boy home when I noticed a tiny caterpillar on his neck. This boy has been very scared of insects, so I calmly asked him to hold still while I got the harmless creature to walk onto my finger. After watching it inch his way up and down my arm a while the boy bravely asked to hold it. He squealed with delight at the ticklish feeling and the fact that he was holding a living thing! And he even went so far as to exclaim that he wanted to be the new carer of his green friend and decidedly he took it home. So, this is an insight into what nature does for the five year old.


DD and I sort coloured leaves to make a spiral.

I’m excited to find, though, that from age seven onwards, the child’s view widens. Maria Montessori wrote extensively on the importance of nature studies and venturing outdoors for age seven plus, and for many reasons. She believed that at around this age the child has the physical need to get out of the house, and for their legs to take flight. Mentally, it is also a time of great imagination and wonder. Where there was once a need to focus inward to develop the senses, the child’s mind is somewhat more free to seek a rich world where he is interested mainly in the ‘how and why’: 

All that used to attract him sensorially now interests him from a different point of view. He is looking for what needs to be done. That is, he is beginning to become aware of the problem of cause and effect.  – Montessori, 2007 p.10

So, it seems, Fern Gully will have a different effect on DD in a couple of years. She’ll want answers and she’ll be more mobile than ever. Thanksfully, Montessori provides many suggestions about how getting out in nature can satisfy the elementary child’s curiosities,  physical needs and social development. It looks like the wilderness will be our classroom much of the time. But, with new territory comes preparation:

Since life outdoors differs from life in a closed environment, a guide and an aim are necessary. In short, to go out, one must be ready for it. Montessori, p12

I was surprised to read that they even had scouts in the 1920s. Montessori recommended children joining a club such as scouts to gain practical life lessons on preparation and survival. Also, as a way to learn from more experienced children and adults some valuable moral lessons and social skills.

As an adolescent, Montessori believed nature immersion was even more important:

Life in the open air, in the sunshine, and a diet high in nutritional content coming from the produce of neighboring fields improve the physical health, while the calm surroundings, the silence, the wonders of nature satisfy the need of the adolescent mind for reflection and meditation (Montessori,  p.112).

So it appears that although much is written about Montessori’s classroom materials she gave equal acclaim to nature’s whispers to children of all ages. If the child could clearly express his developmental needs he would say ‘take me outside!’ ‘Give me time to listen, watch, touch and play.’ The young voices indeed need to be listened to. Nature whispers to them, ‘grow’. 

If a relationship with wilderness is so important to bring up a healthy, peaceful, social and fully functional adult then we must be proactive in providing opportunities for the young ones to experience it. The next couple of blog posts will be dedicated to showing you how you can give this to your child, whether they are in the under 6 sensorial period or 7 and above.

Until then, stay green,


The Montessori Method, Maria Montessori (1870-1952). Translated by Anne Everett George (1882-). New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company, 1912.
From Childhood to Adolescence, Maria Montessori. Montessori-Pierson, 2007